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Summer of Love and Gay Liberation

In the narratives of the Summer of Love, sex plays a big part. Hippies were supposed to be having lots and lots of sex. The unstated assumption was that it was “straight” sex—women and men getting it on. But even in that progenitor of unabashed heterosexual consciousness—Lenore Kandel’s Love Book—there are hints of other modes of sexuality (“the lust of hermaphroditic deities doing inconceivable things to each other”).

The following are four images from underground street sheets that represent gay liberation imaging from 1967 to 1969. Out of the Summer of Love and the counterculture that resulted came the gay hippies, a phenomenon that has not been well documented. This is the subculture that gave birth to the Kaliflower Commune, the Angels of Light Free Theater troupe, and the Cockettes. This is the subculture that fused with gay street youth to form groups such as the Committee for Homosexual Freedom (pre-Stonewall) and Gay Liberation Front (post-Stonewall).

The following are two of the Communication Company sheets distributed on Haight Street in the spring and summer of 1967. They are variants of the same image. I don’t have any information on their derivation but they are striking in their unabashed embrace of same-gender sexuality in the way Lenore Kandel had done for opposite-gender relations.



The following is one of the posters printed by the Free Print Shop in 1968. This was the commune that would begin publishing Kaliflower the following year in 1969. The Free Print Shop collection of publications located at the California Historical Society is full of gay-friendly images.


The final image here is from the spring of 1969, before the Stonewall Uprising in New York City. This poster was published by the Free Print Shop for the Committee for Homosexual Freedom to publicize a daily picket they were conducting of the United States Lines steamship company in San Francisco for the firing of a gay employee.



Curatorial Errors of Omission, Errors of Commission

This past weekend, one of our long-ago communards came to visit. A group of us broke bread together then three of us went to the De Young museum for their Summer of Love exhibit.* Last fall at the Shaping San Francisco history collective’s celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Death of Money parade, I suggested that the Digger motto for choreographing street happenings—”create the condition you describe”—should be the working model for historians for presenting historical exhibits. For the Summer of Love, standing and looking at photographs, psychedelic rock posters and mannequins dressed in hippie attire does not “create the condition” that thousands of young people experienced when they were drawn to the Haight-Ashbury like a siren call heard across the vastlands of America in 1967.

But the De Young had one room (among the dozen or so) that came close to the ideal of a museum that re-creates the experience of the past. The room was bare of any objects except double-size bean bags large enough for couples to lay back and observe the four walls and ceiling projection of an hour-long continuous looping of four films that Bill Ham created which depict his invention of the acid rock light show. This room was popular when we visited—the bean bags were filled with couples staring at the slithering colors. Re-creating the actual experience of a psychedelic show would only be possible with the full reality. Nevertheless, the Bill Ham experience does a good job of eliciting one aspect of that environment.


Now for the errors of Omission.

First before mentioning two things about the De Young exhibit that annoyed me, I want to say that the museum staff have produced a very interesting interactive web introduction to the Summer of Love exhibit. Check it out.

Error #1. One of the placards in the room that is devoted to the Trips Festival (1966) is titled “a trip without a ticket” [see photo below] and the accompanying text explains that the festival was “the first event to gather members of the counterculture in a significant way and it remains the pinnacle of the psychedelic era.” Apart from arguing whether the Trips Festival was the “first” such event, my main annoyance is the placard title. “Trip Without A Ticket” was a phrase that was coined and popularized by the Diggers. To use it on this placard (see below) for something completely unrelated to the Diggers is either just ignorance of the source or a willful disregard of acknowledging it. “Trip Without A Ticket” was the title of a Digger street manifesto, an article that appeared in the final Digger Papers publication, and the name of one of the iconic Digger Free Stores. It appeared countless times in street sheets published by the Communication Company (for example: here, here, here and here.


Error #2. Similar to the first, another Digger slogan is used without attribution. “Do Your Own Thing” is the title of a display placard that explains the concept behind the motto. The accompanying text [see image below] gives a fair definition of the phrase (limited to the sense of individual fashion and style) but never mentions the Diggers as the originators and publicists nor the larger meanings the phrase had. Granted, today you hear “do your own thing” from all spectrums of society (including politicians on the Left and the Right both). It appears in news articles in both the underground (Internet) media and national news outlets. It’s in common usage. No explanation required. But in the context of the De Young exhibit on the Summer of Love, attention to the origins of counterculture phrases would seem to be an essential historical detail. Again, the mistake could be lack of knowledge of historical facts or disregard for acknowledging them.


The formal title of the exhibit at the De Young is “The Summer of Love Experience: Art, Fashion, and Rock & Roll.” I did not see any placards that mentioned the United States War in Vietnam. There is nothing mentioned about the Diggers. [There is one wall with six Digger sheets/posters, but nothing explains who the Diggers were or what they did.] The backdrop of the Civil Rights movement, the Berkeley Free Speech and Anti-War movements, and the North Beach Beat Poetry renaissance were the foundations of the counterculture. The mixture of psychedelics and avant garde art and music gave rise to the Haight-Ashbury community, but opposition to the United States war in Vietnam was ever present. Street literature confirms this argument, as can be seen in this Communication Company broadside.

Errors of Commission.

One of the other museums with Summer of Love exhibits is the California Historical Society (CHS). They have an amazing collection for such a small institution. Their exhibit is much smaller than the De Young’s. I want to visit it again before writing my thoughts. There were two mistakes in the Digger display, though. I brought these to the attention of the Director. First, the Diggers were active from 1966 to 1968 NOT 1967-1968. Second, the famous photo of the five Diggers on the steps of City Hall after they were released from their arrest on Public Nuisance charges for the Intersection Game is credited wrong. The photographer was Bob Campbell as can be seen in the photo caption (below) as it appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle on Nov 30 1966. The CHS exhibit credits Gene Anthony, which is a wrong fact. That’s an easy correction to make. I hope it happens.


So, errors of omission, errors of commission. We all are guilty of them, I suppose. Hopefully this pointing out of four will be a helpful reminder to historians all—amateur and professional— in using and referencing sources and facts. After all, those are the basis of the science of history.

*There are five Summer of Love exhibits that I know about: De Young, CHS, BAMPFA, GLBT Museum, and the fifth is the display of street posters that Deborah Aschheim designed for the SF Arts Commission on Market Street. Not a traditional museum but an outdoor public space to exhibit her provocative artwork. Deborah’s work has received a lot of publicity along with the museum programs.


Summer of Love Free Resources Listing (1967)

By summer 1967, the Digger movement which began in September 1966 had blossomed into multifarious groupings throughout San Francisco, the Bay Area and beyond in counterculture enclaves worldwide. Here is a listing of Free Resources available in San Francisco and other cities in the late summer 1967 including free food, free stores, free medical, free bakery, free news, free lawyers, free schools, communes and Free Fun. The sheet below was part of the Free City set of street news sheets published by the Diggers/Free City Collective. [Click on scanned image for large version.]

Scan 18-m

Dennis’ Free Store

Here’s an article I found in The Screw, an underground newspaper from Kansas City, MO (Aug. 1, 1969):

Dennis’ Free Store

Are you tired of the shirt you’re wearing? Go down to the Free Store at 39th & Main across from The Beacon, take it off, toss it down, look around, find another one, put it on and leave. The Free Store has plenty of shirts, pants, shoes, boots, records, books, and jackets. You can have any of them you want. Just bring in something, anything, and take out whatever you like. The proprietor of this store, Dennis Giangreco, doesn’t want to make any money, he just wants you to come down and take his stuff away. There has never been anything like a free store in Kansas City. It goes beyond any of the “hip” shops we have had because everything is free and it exists completely outside the capitalistic framework of profit motives. Also it is not a Mission Hills owned philanthropic “thrift shop” designed to put second hand goods within the reach of the impoverished; those poor devils god help them, we simply must do something for them this very afternoon when we’re through shopping at the Plaza. The Free Store has political implications that no hip shops have had before in Kansas City. Its very existence tends to undermine the dream of making a fast buck. It represents the sentiments of a community that feels leisure to be more important than affluence and “getting ahead”. The shop could use some book cases and clothes. Go down to the Free Store, give away your stuff and get some different stuff.

dennis free store

Lost history

This past week saw visits by Tashi Shimada and his two associates from Japan (Kotaro and Moriyuki) working on research for a photo essay on the Angels of Light. I took them to the California Historical Society where they wanted to view the Free Print Shop and Kaliflower Collection. It was disappointing to see that the issues of Kaliflower (volume one) are out of order. For example, this page (below) is missing from Vol. 1/No. 34 so that anyone researching the Angels of Light would not be aware that the same issue had full page introductions for both the Cockettes and the Angels of Light. This is how Lost History Happens.


It was fifty years ago today

The Invisible Circus was one of the defining moments in the emerging counterculture of San Francisco. It was the Digger answer to the Human Be-In which was a magical event for many, and yet replicated the same stage-star-syndrome that was so antithetical to the Digger-do spirit of personal autonomy. The Invisible Circus was the opposite. There were no stars, just venues. Rooms and hallways and sanctuaries to “do your own thing”—whatever the creative impulse would inspire. Billed as a 72-hour happening, the event started at 8pm on Friday, February 24, 1967 at Glide Church in San Francisco’s Tenderloin neighborhood, the site of one of the Free Fairs that the Artists Liberation Front had organized the previous Fall. By Saturday morning (2/25/67) things were getting a bit out of hand. The ministerial leadership of Glide called it quits. But the stories about the Invisible Circus would circulate for years (decades). Here’s the Dave Hodges poster that announced the event.invisible_circus_poster_hodges

During the brief existence of the Invisible Circus, Chester and Claude set up the John Dillinger Computer instant news service in one of the backrooms at Glide Church with their Gestetner mimeograph machine and Gestefax scanner, and they churned out dozens of bulletins all night long. When I started collecting Communication Company broadsides in 1971, a friendly soul let me xerox his collection of Invisible Circus printouts. Unfortunately all the copies in the Digger Archives are now third generation copies. There are several which are iconic of the times but are now too faded to scan. I made a facsimile of one, “Dear mom and dad … from Emil”  (see below). Such a gest, so typical of Com/Co’s style.